Showing 56 Result(s)

Cyprus’ Crazy Gang through to the cup final

first_imgBy Iacovos ConstantinouTwo goals in extra time by substitute Andreas Papathanasiou sent Ermis through to the final of the Coca-Cola cup where they will now meet favourites APOEL on May 21.It was a historic day for underdogs Ermis Aradippou who defeated cup holders Apollon by 4-1 in a pulsating game. After a goalless first half Ermis took the lead through their top scorer Marco Tagbajumi just after the break. Their joy was shortlived as three minutes later a blunder by their keeper Nikolaos Arabadzis allowed Apollon’s Gaston Sangoy to level the score and put Apollon back on track.With six minutes on the clock however Ermis levelled the aggregate score and sent the game into extra time. With a goal either side of the extra time break team captain Papathanasiou made sure that Ermis’ fairy tale run would see them go all the way.Ermis coach Nikos Panayiotou was ecstatic after the game singing the praises for his unsung heroes. “Today we had passion, we had determination. This is just the beginning of much bigger things to come.” In an apparent jibe directed against the ‘bigger teams’ of Cyprus football he said, “today we played with our hearts, not with pockets full of money”.Their chairman Loukas Fanieros was equally happy and said that they have now proven that they are a team to be reckoned with. “We shall face APOEL in the final. They are a good team but we shall win the cup. All we need is a bit of luck,” he concluded.As expected APOEL had no problems in reaching the final despite fielding a completely different team from the one that faced Omonia on Saturday.In an almost empty Makario stadium APOEL put four past Doxa Katokopias (8-1 on aggregate) with Christos Pipinis, Cesar Santin and a brace from Aldo Adorno getting the goals.This is the thirtieth time that APOEL will feature in a cup final as opposed to Ermis’ first!last_img read more

G Division continues to empower Region 2 youths

first_img– partners with FFTP Guyana to distribute sewing machinesIn its quest to keep youths off of the streets and actively engaged in meaningful activities, ranks of G Division (Essequibo Coast/Islands) on Saturday, distributed sewing machines to youth groups across Region Two (Pomeroon-Supenaam) and on the Essequibo Island of Wakenaam.A rank accepts the machine on behalf of a group from G Division Commander Khali Pareshram and a beneficiary during the presentation ceremonyAccording to Divisional Commander Khali Pareshram, the aim is to assist the Division in fighting crime, while at the same time empowering youths with skills training. The machines, he noted, will also provide the necessary tools to make the youths more marketable and independent.Machines were also presented to groups in Lima Sands, Zorg, San Souci, Onderneeming and Charity.At the handing over ceremony held at the Anna Regina Police Station, a member from Zorg’s youth group, Arylene Ramdatt, said that her community has a lot of youths and soon they will be starting sewing classes. She extended gratitude to the Divisional Commander for the donation, which she assured will be used to empower youths in the Zorg areas.The donation was made possible through the collaboration between G Division and Food for the Poor Guyana Inc. Over the past week, several youth groups were formed and the Division also hosted a book distribution exercise, which benefitted many young people in the Region.last_img read more

Govt warns of cybersecurity threat

first_imgThe Guyana National Cybersecurity Incident Response Team (GNCIRT) confirms that a global ransomware attack is currently in progress and is advising citizens to be cautious of what they access online, according to a statement from the Ministry of the Presidency.The self-spreading ransomware, known as “Wanna Cry” or “Wanna Decryptor”, exploits vulnerability in Microsoft’s Windows operating system. It is believed that this ransomware is spread through phishing emails, malicious adverts on websites, and questionable apps and programmes.GNCIRT urges users not to open unsolicited or suspicious emails or links, attachments included in unsolicited emails, links to unfamiliar or nefarious websites and download applications and programmes that have not been verified by an official store.“In the event that your computer has been infected with the “Wanna Cry” ransomware, take the following steps; disconnect and quarantine the infected system by removing it from your network and apply the latest Microsoft patch to all computer systems,” the statement advised.For further information and support, please contact GNCIRT at telephone numbers 660-6074 or 231-8820, extension 221 or 222; or info@cirt.gy. Future updates will be provided as more information becomes available.last_img read more

Universal Orlando Resort Preview – Week of July 29

first_imgTwo words: Universal Express. There are times you can get by without it, and times it can be the shining star of your visit. Learn all about how to make it work for you here!Weekly Weather ReportOoooh baby, it’s summer! And it’s not letting up anytime soon. Ponchos are considered fashionable, right? Weekly Park Hours and Admission Saturday is the only day this week to see Universal’s Superstar Parade at 7pm, and Universal’s Cinematic Spectacular – 100 Years of Movie Memories at 9:45pm.CityWalk is still open until 2am daily, and self parking is free after 6pm. We are still at peak summer pricing, so as a reminder:One-day base tickets to Universal Studios or Islands of Adventure will run you $124 per adult, and $119 per child (plus tax). 2-Park 1-Day tickets are $179 per adult and $174 per child (plus tax). A one-day ticket for Volcano Bay will be $67 per adult and $62 per child (plus tax).Notable Highlights Big news out of Hogsmeade at Islands of Adventure – Dragon Challenge will have its last run on September 4, and a brand new coaster will be taking its place. The new attraction is said to be a “highly-themed coaster experience” – can’t wait to see what it will be all about! Fans will want to get their last ride on Dragon Challenge before it goes away!There are no planned closures or refurbishments scheduled for this week.See you next week! Share This!The Universal Orlando Preview is brought to you by Storybook Destinations. Storybook Destinations specializes in Disney and Universal travel, is consistently highly rated by our readers, and is owned by our own blogger extraordinaire, Tammy Whiting. Storybook also offers free subscriptions to TouringPlans to clients with qualified bookings.Before you wonder if you are having a case of deja vu…you aren’t, I promise! Yes, not much is different in the land of Universal Orlando, but let’s look at the details of this week so you can make the most of your visit!Weekly Crowd Levellast_img read more

How to Create a Bully-Proof Workplace

first_img— Designate points of contact so employees know where to turn for help. We may not get bullies to admit that they are wrong, but their harmful behavior can be discouraged by individuals standing up for themselves in a workplace culture designed to support a bully-free work zone. A bully-free workplace is a place where all workers are fully engaged and committed to the organization’s mission, while maintaining positive relations with all stakeholders in the company; where workers communicate honestly—and respectfully—with colleagues, peers and bosses; where leaders engage with employees and listen carefully to gauge the pulse of the organization; and where relationships are reciprocal and responsibility is shared. It’s a place where bullies’ misbehavior is dealt with seriously so everyone can get on with their work. — Do not stay silent if you experience bullying or see it. Remember, when someone exhibits bullying behavior and gets away with it, it reinforces the behavior. — Take a stand for yourself. Stay calm, but refuse and rebuke the bad behavior in a forthright way. Peter J. Dean, PhD., is the founder and president of Leaders By Design, a company that provides  leadership development for executives.center_img More than 1 in 4 Americans deal with an on-the-job bully. While there are no general civility or anti-bullying laws in place at the federal or state levels, companies that want to vanquish bullying in the workplace can adopt their own guidelines or codes of conduct. That begins by enforcing a policy statement asserting that all people, regardless of race, gender, background, belief system or position in the company, will be treated with respect, dignity and civility. In addition, the policy should state that any type of bullying that demeans, diminishes, defames or belittles a person through rumors, lies, devious and selfish acts, unilaterally boastful comments about self and derogatory comments about others, antisocial or aggressive behavior, or any acts that create a hostile work environment will not be tolerated. — Discuss bullying behavior and its consequences openly with your team. Review the most appropriate ways of addressing it and eradicating it. Here are some strategies for managing bullies out of your business that I and my co-author, Molly D. Shepard, recommend in our book The Bully-Proof Workplace: Essential Strategies, Tips and Scripts for Dealing with the Office Sociopath (McGraw-Hill, 2017): — Examine your own behavior to ensure that you are setting a good example. Remember, as a leader in your organization, you are a role model who can influence others, like it or not.last_img read more

Intel(R) Hybrid Cloud Introduction Webinar – July 1st, 10-11PM PDT

first_imgIf your interested in AMT for servers, here’s the 1st webinar where I’ll be talking about this new platform.  Please join us.Intel® Hybrid Cloud Pilot ProgramOffer your small business customers cloud-like flexibility, with the peace of mind offered by on-premise hardware. Intel® Hybrid Cloud is an innovative new subscription-based model for providing locally hosted server software on a pay-as-you-go basis. Small businesses get all of the benefits of services in the cloud, with the responsiveness and consistency of local applications, plus the peace of mind of having your data on site. Whether you are already selling managed services or are thinking about expanding into this rapidly growing market, Intel Hybrid Cloud can be a valuable addition to your portfolio.If you are interested to hear more about this new Pilot Program and Platform register for the webinar.Chris Graham and I will be providing a technology and business overview of the pilot.   Please join in and you can also follow me on twitter @JoshProstar to hear more about what we are planning.  Date:  July 1st (Thursday)Time: 10-11AM PDTlast_img read more

Elsevier to Editor: Change Controversial Journal or Resign

first_imgThe editor of the journal Medical Hypotheses—an oddity in the world of scientific publishing because it does not practice peer review—is about to lose his job over the publication last summer of a paper that says HIV does not cause AIDS. Publishing powerhouse Elsevier today told editor Bruce Charlton that it won’t renew his contract, which expires at the end of 2010, and it asked that Charlton resign immediately or implement a series of changes in his editorial policy, including putting a system of peer review in place. Charlton, who teaches evolutionary psychology at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne in the United Kingdom, says he will do neither, and some on the editorial advisory board say they may resign in protest if he is fired.Elsevier’s move is the latest in an 8-month battle over the journal; it comes after an anonymous panel convened by Elsevier recommended drastic changes to the journal’s course, and five scientists reviewed the controversial paper and unanimously panned it.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Medical Hypotheses, which says it “will consider radical, speculative and non-mainstream scientific ideas provided they are coherently expressed,” is the only Elsevier journal not to practice peer review. Scientist, entrepreneur, and author David Horrobin, who founded the journal in 1975, believed reviewers tend to dislike what lies outside the scientific mainstream and thus are reluctant to embrace new ideas, however promising. Charlton, who succeeded Horrobin in 2003, takes the same view: He decides what gets published himself—although he occasionally will consult another scientist—and manuscripts are edited only very lightly. As thejournal’s Web site explains, “the editor sees his role as a ‘chooser’, not a ‘changer.’ “=”#description”>It’s a policy that leads to the occasional wild and wacky paper—a 2009 article for which the author studied his own navel lint became an instant classic—but the journal is also a “unique and excellent” venue for airing new and valuable ideas, says neuroscientist Vilayanur Ramachandran of the University of California (UC), San Diego, who published in the journal 15 times himself and sits on its editorial advisory board. “There are ideas that may seem implausible but which are very important if true,” Ramachandran says. “This is the only place you can get them published.”But the journal got in hot water in July when Charlton “chose” a paper, previously rejected by the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, in which molecular virologist Peter Duesberg of UC Berkeley and colleagues assert that HIV does not cause AIDS and that medical statistics and demographical data do not support the existence of a massive AIDS epidemic in South Africa. Duesberg, a so-called “AIDS denialist,” has disputed the link between HIV and AIDS since the 1980s; his paper was an attack on a study by Harvard University scientists claiming that more then 300,000 lives were lost because the South African government dragged its feet in the introduction of anti-HIV therapy.Charlton says he is “agnostic” on the question whether HIV causes AIDS but adds that even papers that are wrong can make interesting points—and that can make the reader rethink his or her own viewpoint. “If he believes that, he should have a great big health warning on every page saying, ‘This may be rubbish,’ ” says Nicoli Nattrass, an economist at the University of Cape Town and the author of another study on the price of AIDS denialism in her country. Nattrass and others say publication in a scientific journal gives Duesberg’s paper an undeserved air of respectability and credibility that can harm public health. “This is not just some stupid academic debate,” she says. “Many people in South Africa still don’t believe HIV causes AIDS because there are scientists who say so. And they are dying because of it.”After the paper’s publication, prominent HIV scientists John Moore of Weill Cornell Medical College in New York City and Nobelist Françoise Barré-Sinoussi of the Pasteur Institute in Paris wrote Elsevier to ask that the paper be withdrawn. Others asked the National Library of Medicine to delist Medical Hypotheses from MEDLINE, the world’s foremost database of biomedical literature, and called on scientists to urge their librarians to cancel the journal. (They also took aim at a second AIDS paper by molecular biologist Marco Ruggiero of the University of Florence, which they say had denialist tendencies as well.)Following the advice of an external panel whose membership has not been made public, Elsevier wrote Charlton on 22 January to say that Medical Hypotheses would have to become a peer-reviewed journal. Potentially controversial papers should receive especially careful scrutiny, the publisher said, and some topics—including “hypotheses that could be interpreted as supporting racism” should be off limits.Elsevier also had its flagship medical journal, The Lancet, organize a formal review by five anonymous experts. The reviews, which have not yet been released publicly but were obtained by Science, were unanimously harsh—especially about the Duesberg paper, indicating that it is riddled with errors and misinterpretations. “It might entertain their friends and relatives on a cold winter evening, but it does not belong in a scientific journal,” one reviewer wrote. On 24 February, Elsevier wrote Duesberg that his paper—which had not yet been printed and had been taken down from the journal’s Web site in August—would be “permanently withdrawn.” Ruggiero received a similar letter 5 days later.Charlton disputes the validity and objectivity of the review—which he calls a “show trial”—and says the publisher had no right to override his editorial decision. He says he has received letters from more than 150 Medical Hypotheses authors who support him, a selection of which he has published on his Weblog.A majority of the journal’s Editorial Advisory Board is behind Charlton as well. On 12 February, 13 of the Board’s 19 members wrote Elsevier to demand that the papers be returned to the journal’s Web site and to reject the proposed changes to its editorial policies. Not having peer review “is an integral part of our identity, indeed our very raison d’être,” the group wrote. That does not mean they’re all happy with the paper, says board member David Healy, a professor in psychological medicine at Cardiff University School of Medicine in the United Kingdom. “It’s a defense of Bruce, not of the Duesberg paper,” he says.At least one of those on the board strongly disagrees with the majority, however. Antonio Damasio, head of the University of Southern California’s Brain and Creativity Institute in Los Angeles, says that the paper should never have been published but acknowledges that he has not kept up with the affair. Duesberg—who has not published anything on HIV the past decade except for one paper in a journal published by the Indian Academy of Sciences—says Elsevier’s measures are the latest example of “censorship” imposed by the “AIDS establishment.” But Medical Hypotheses’ critics applaud the publisher’s latest step. “It seems clear that Elsevier has come to realize that there is a problem with Medical Hypotheses and that they are doing what they can to rectify it,” says Moore.last_img read more

Senate Panel Proposes Smaller Cuts to Science Agencies Than House

first_imgSenate Democrats unveiled a plan today to trim federal spending for the rest of the fiscal year that takes smaller bites out of the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Science, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and NASA than what the House of Representatives has proposed. But it suggests that cuts in research are all but inevitable this year.The Senate bill, which could be brought to the floor as early as Tuesday, proposes a reduction over current spending of almost $11 billion, compared with the $61 billion reduction in the House version passed last month. To make it look larger—and thus more appealing to fiscal hawks—Senate leaders described it as a $51 billion reduction from the president’s 2011 request, submitted 13 months ago and never enacted by Congress.Details of the Senate proposal are still somewhat sketchy, however.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)The Senate Appropriations committee says that NSF would receive $6.87 billion under its plan rather than the $6.57 billion in the House version. That’s a reduction of roughly $50 million below the current level of $6.92 billion. NASA would receive $18.5 billion rather than its current level of $18.7 billion. The House version would lower it to $18.4 billion.Under the Senate version, DOE’s Office of Science and the new Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) would be trimmed by a total of $523 million. By comparison, the Senate panel says the House version would nearly double the size of that cut, slashing $1.04 billion. But it’s hard to know for sure because of the complications in calculating the budget of each program. The Office of Science now receives $4.9 billion and would get $4 billion in the House version. ARPA-E, which doesn’t have a regular appropriation, sought $300 million in 2011.The statement released today does not mention the National Institutes of Health, which under the House bill would be held to its 2010 levels. The president had requested a $1 billion increase in 2011.The government is currently being funded under a continuing resolution (CR) that expires on 18 March. If the Senate and House don’t reach an agreement by then, another CR will be needed to avoid a shutdown.See our 2012 Budget coverage.last_img read more

Did ancient Mesopotamians get high? Near Eastern rituals may have included opium, cannabis

first_img ROBERT S. MERRILLEES Cypriot jugs were crafted in the shape of the poppy seed pod 3000 years ago. Poppies, shown here with seed pods, have been used to produce opium in the Near East for some 5000 years. By Andrew LawlerApr. 19, 2018 , 2:00 PM Once people organized into city states, they may also have started large-scale production of pharmaceuticals, says archaeologist Luca Peyronel of the International University of Languages and Media in Milan, Italy. A decade ago, before the onset of Syria’s brutal civil war, he was part of a team that gathered samples from an unusual kitchen in a palace in the northwestern Syrian city of Ebla, which flourished 4 millennia ago on the outskirts of the Sumerian and Akkadian empires.The room lacked the plant and animal remains typically associated with food preparation. But residue analyses on pots found there may explain the mystery, as Peyronel and his colleagues described in a paper last year: The researchers found traces of wild plants often used for medicine, such as poppy for opium to dull pain, heliotrope to fight viral infections, and chamomile to reduce inflammation. Given that the space contained eight hearths and pots that could hold 40 to 70 liters, the drugs could have been made in large quantities, Peyronel says.Some of these extracts, such as opium, can induce hallucinations, although it’s unclear whether the potions were used in ritual or medicine. The kitchen’s location near the heart of the palace suggests its products were used for ceremonial occasions, and cuneiform tablets from the building mention special priests associated with ritual beverages, Peyronel says. The distinction between medicine and mind-altering drug may have been lost on ancient peoples. “The two hypotheses are not necessarily at odds,” he adds.Three hundred kilometers due west and several centuries later, the ancient people of Cyprus used opium in religious ceremonies, Collard says. Residue analyses show that between 1600 and 1000 B.C.E., people poured opium alkaloids into pots crafted in the shape of the seed capsule of the opium poppy, in what Collard calls “prehistoric commodity branding.” All the jugs were found in temples and tombs, suggesting a role in ritual. Opium jugs made on Cyprus have been found in Egypt and the Levant—the first clear example of the international drug trade.Other substances less well known today may have played a role in healing or ecstatic rituals in the ancient Near East. When King Tutankhamun’s tomb, dating to the 14th century B.C.E., was opened in 1922, archaeologists found the boy-king’s body covered with the flowers of blue water lily, a common motif in many Egyptian tomb paintings. Steeped in wine for several weeks, the plant yields a sedative that produces a calm euphoria.Diana Stein, an archaeologist at Birkbeck University of London, claims archaeologists have long studied scenes of rituals involving drugs and their effects without realizing it. She argues that the banquet scenes that often adorn small seals found Anatolia, Syria, Mesopotamia, and Iran actually show people imbibing psychoactive potions. Another common motif, interpreted as a scene of contest, may instead represent the internal conflict that results when the imbiber faces an alternative reality, Stein proposes. In these images, “everything is distorted and pulsing—but they certainly knew how to carve things realistically when they wanted to,” she said at the meeting here.“I find Diana’s arguments convincing and even energizing, as they open up a new avenue for research,” says Megan Cifarelli, an art historian at Manhattanville College in Purchase, New York.But others are more cautious. “Scholars have tended to shy away from the possibility that the ancient Near Easterners partook of ‘recreational’ drugs, apart from alcohol, so it’s good that someone is brave enough to look into it,” says archaeologist Glenn Schwartz at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. But he says Stein’s suggestions “seem to go too far on too little evidence,” a view echoed by many at the meeting.Collard, however, is confident that additional residue and botanical analyses, along with study of iconography and texts, will gradually persuade skeptics. Cifarelli notes that the ancients likely used drugs not just to heal, but to forge sets of beliefs, and contact a spiritual realm where healing and religion were entwined. “Most of us,” she says, “are so far removed from that kind of transformative magic.”*Correction, 23 April, 1:20 p.m.: This story has been corrected to note that alcohol was fermented, rather than distilled, at least 10,000 years ago; distillation was developed later.center_img ISTOCK.COM/OZTURK Did ancient Mesopotamians get high? Near Eastern rituals may have included opium, cannabis MUNICH, GERMANY—For as long as there has been civilization, there have been mind-altering drugs. Alcohol was fermented at least 10,000 years ago in the Fertile Crescent, about the same time that agriculture took hold there. Elsewhere, for example in Mesoamerica, other psychoactive drugs were an important part of culture. But the ancient Near East had seemed curiously drug-free—until recently.Now, new techniques for analyzing residues in excavated jars and identifying tiny amounts of plant material suggest that ancient Near Easterners indulged in a range of psychoactive substances. Recent advances in identifying traces of organic fats, waxes, and resins invisible to the eye have allowed scientists to pinpoint the presence of various substances with a degree of accuracy unthinkable a decade or two ago.For example, “hard scientific evidence” shows that ancient people extracted opium from poppies, says David Collard, senior archaeologist at Jacobs, an engineering firm in Melbourne, Australia, who found signs of ritual opium use on Cyprus dating back more than 3000 years. By then, drugs like cannabis had arrived in Mesopotamia, while people from Turkey to Egypt experimented with local substances such as blue water lily.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Some senior researchers are still dubious, pointing out that ancient texts are mostly silent on such substances. Others consider the topic “unworthy of scholarly attention,” Collard says. “The archaeology of the ancient Near East is traditionally conservative.”But the work is prompting fresh thinking on the relationship between substances and societies. At the International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East here last week, for example, one scholar even reinterpreted well-studied ancient images as representing drug-taking rituals and drug-induced distortions.Drug use almost certainly began in prehistory and spread with migrations. For example, the Yamnaya people, who swept out of Central Asia about 5000 years ago and left their genes in most living Europeans and South Asians, appear to have carried cannabis to Europe and the Middle East. In 2016, a team from the German Archaeological Institute and the Free University, both in Berlin, found residues and botanical remains of the plant, which originates in East and Central Asia, at Yamnaya sites across Eurasia. It’s difficult to know whether the Yamnaya used cannabis simply to make hemp for rope or also smoked or ingested it. But some ancient people did inhale: Digs in the Caucasus have uncovered braziers containing seeds and charred remains of cannabis dating to about 3000 B.C.E.last_img read more